Dr Paul Lashmar is Deputy Head of Journalism at City, University of London. His research interests include investigative journalism, intelligence-media relations, organised crime reporting, digital journalism and media bias. Paul has been an investigative journalist in television and print and on the staff of The Observer, Granada Television’s World in Action current affairs series and The Independent. He was awarded ‘Reporter of The Year’ in the 1986 UK Press Awards. Paul is an adviser to the Centre for Investigative Journalism. He was previously head of journalism at University of Sussex (2015-2017) and Brunel University (2014-2015).